Share via Email Vietnamese fans turn out to watch Arsenal train in Hanoi. The local mechanic who fixes my bike shakes his head and mutters something in a tone that suggests derision. A bartender laughs at me. I am clearly not in on the joke. Vietnam is a football-mad country but ask a Vietnamese person if they follow a team here and they blush.
Load Previous Page Sports and recreation Football soccer is exceedingly popular in Vietnam, and volleyball , badminton , wrestling, bicycling, chess , and dominoes are also widely enjoyed. Since , the country has participated in the Olympic Games , with competitors in swimming and water sports, martial arts, rowing and canoeing, weightlifting, table tennis , and track.
In noncompetitive contexts , urban Vietnamese stroll in great numbers on evenings and weekends, especially in the parks and along the banks of lakes and rivers in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.
Media and publishing Radio and television services are owned and operated by the state and managed by the Ministry of Culture and Information.
Radio reaches more of the population than television, as many rural families are located beyond the range of television transmitters or cannot afford sets.
Most daily newspapers are in Vietnamese, but there are also several editions in English, and one in French. An array of periodicals is also available in these languages, as well as in Chinese. Newspapers and magazines operate under the supervision of particular state, party, and mass organizations.
Although publishing is regulated by the government, the strict controls of earlier years were somewhat relaxed during the s.
Glossy magazines catering to the business community and tabloids of a sensationalist nature began to appear in the s. Despite the loosening of government regulations, criticism of the political system , its leadership, and Marxist-Leninist ideology remains forbidden.
Vietnam acquired a connection to the Internet in the late s.
At first, the government discouraged widespread access by charging high user fees. Early in the 21st century, fees were allowed to drop, and since then Internet use has been growing exponentially. Much foreign information, however, continues to be screened out by the government. History Origins of the Vietnamese people Relatively little is known about the origins of the Vietnamese.
Some scholars have suggested that the Lac were closely related to other peoples, known as the Viet called the Yue by the Chinese , who inhabited the coastal region of East Asia from the Yangtze River to the Red River delta during the 1st millennium bce. Others have questioned this view, noting that modern-day Vietnamese share many cultural and linguistic traits with other non-Chinese peoples living in neighbouring areas of Southeast Asia.
Linguistic research, which offers a relatively reliable way of distinguishing the various ethnic groups of Southeast Asia, supports the mixed ethnic and cultural provenance of the Vietnamese people. Modern linguistics places the origin of Vietnamese in the Austronesian language group on the basis of similarities in morphology and consonant clusters.
It is largely this linguistic link that has led scholars to speculate that Austronesians formed at least a part of the Lac population. However, like Tai , Vietnamese evolved away from the Austronesian language group as it acquired tones as part of its phonemic structure. This may have been the consequence of interaction with Chinese languages , to which Vietnamese again, like Tai bears some similarity of tones, but it is also possible that elements of tonality and grammar might have been adopted directly from Tai.
From the monotonic Mon-Khmer language family, Vietnamese derived its fundamental structure and many of its basic words. Early script—as well as much political, literary, philosophical, and technical vocabulary—again trace to the Chinese, who at that time were more culturally advanced than the peoples of the Red River delta.
Ethnographic study also reveals the degree to which ancient Vietnamese culture combined elements found among many other peoples within the region.
Totemism , animism , tattoo ing, the chewing of betel nuts, teeth blackening, and many marriage rituals and seasonal festivals indicate the relationship between the Vietnamese and the neighbouring peoples in Southeast Asia.
Although Chinese civilization later became the main force in shaping Vietnamese culture, the failure of the Chinese to assimilate the Vietnamese people underscores the fact that strong elements of an authentic local culture must have emerged in the Red River valley long before China established its millennium of rule over Vietnam.
Legends and early history of Vietnam Legendary kingdoms According to legend , the first ruler of the Vietnamese people was King De Minh, a descendant of a mythical Chinese ruler who was the father of Chinese agriculture. Later, the king and queen separated; Au Co moved with 50 of her sons into the mountains, and Lac Long Quan kept the other 50 sons and continued to rule over the lowlands.
This legend and other related legends , most of which received their literary form only after ce, describe in mythical terms the fusion, conflicts, and separation of peoples from the north and south and of peoples from the mountains and the coastal lowlands.
The legends show the immortals as mountain dwellers, while the people along the coast are descendants of the dragon lords—a division found in many legends throughout Southeast Asia.
The retreat of Au Co and 50 of her sons into the mountains may well be a mythical record of the separation into distinct groups of the proto-Vietnamese in the Red River delta. Those who left the lowlands could be the ancestors of the Muong , who still live in the hills surrounding the delta and are the only ethnic minority of Vietnam closely related in language and customs to the Vietnamese.
According to legend, the Hung dynasty had 18 kings, each of whom ruled for about years. The last of the Hung kings was overthrown in or bce by a neighbouring warlord, Thuc Phan, who invaded and conquered Van Lang, united it with his kingdom, and called the new state Au Lac, which he then ruled under the name An Duong.
Nam Viet This kingdom covered much of southern China and was ruled by Trieu Da from his capital near the present site of Guangzhou Canton. Its population consisted chiefly of the Viet who had earlier been driven by the Chinese from their kingdoms south of the Yangtze River.
Trieu Da, after ending Chinese domination and killing all officials loyal to the Chinese emperor, adopted the customs of the Viet and made himself the ruler of a vast non-Chinese empire.
The end of Au Lac in bce marks the end of Vietnamese legend and the beginning of Vietnamese history, as recorded in Chinese historical annals. After almost years of diplomatic and military duels between the Han dynasty of China and Trieu Da and his successors, Nam Viet was conquered bce by the Chinese under the Han emperor Wudi.
Thus, the territories occupied by the ancestors of the Vietnamese fell under Chinese rule. Nam Viet was divided into nine military districts with Chinese names, the three southernmost of which, later called Giao Chau, covered the northern half of what is now Vietnam.
Early society When China extended its rule over Vietnam, the people of the Red River delta were in transition from the Bronze to the Iron Age , although some stone implements were also still in use.
These ancestors of the Vietnamese were already experienced at cultivating rice. They had learned how to irrigate their rice fields by using the waters from rivers that were backed up by the tides.
Plows and water buffalo were still unknown the land was prepared for cultivation with polished stone hoes , but the proto-Vietnamese are thought to have been able to produce two rice crops annually.
They supplemented their diet by fishing and hunting. Their weapons were mainly bows and arrows; the bronze heads of their arrows often were dipped in poison to facilitate killing such larger animals as elephants , whose tusks were traded for iron from China.
The social organization of the early Vietnamese, before Chinese rule, was hierarchical, forming a kind of feudal society that until the midth century existed among the Tai and Muong minority populations of northern Vietnam. Power was held by tribal chiefs at the head of one or several communities.
These chiefs were civil, religious, and military leaders, and their power was hereditary; they were large landowners who kept the mass of the people in virtual serfdom. At the head of this aristocracy stood the king, probably the most powerful of the tribal chiefs.
Archaeological work and, to a lesser extent, ancient Chinese records have revealed that religion was characterized by propitiation of numerous supernatural beings and spirits.
Some spirits were those of dangerous animals; while others were those of deceased rulers or other important persons. A great religious festival, almost a carnival, was held at the beginning of spring and was marked by abandon and promiscuity.
In all these respects, the inhabitants of the Red River delta, prior to their subjugation by the Chinese, showed numerous affinities with most of the people of mainland and insular Southeast Asia. It was not until several centuries after the imposition of Chinese rule that the Vietnamese developed more distinct ethnic characteristics.
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